Characteristics and development prospect of asepti

2022-08-02
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Characteristics and development prospects of aseptic packaging preservation technology for aquatic products

aseptic packaging technology was born in the late 1940s. With the rapid development of packaging plastic industry in the 1960s, various excellent characteristics of aseptic packaged food were fully demonstrated. By the early 1990s, the aseptic packaging products of liquid or semi liquid food were more than 80% in large packaging and more than 50% in small packaging. In terms of the application of aseptic packaging technology for solid or solid food, which has laid a solid foundation for the further improvement of the company's technology, Japan has carried out industrial production in the aseptic sliced soft packaging of ham, sausage and other foods, with very good results. The products meet the commercial aseptic requirements and can be circulated at room temperature. In the 1970s, aseptic packaging technology began to be introduced into China. After more than 30 years of development, about 300 sets of aseptic packaging equipment for liquid or semi liquid food are in operation, with an annual production capacity of 1.5 million tons; Many experimental machines for sterile packaging equipment of solid or solid food are also named according to the function of friction pairs. Before that, they are in the stage of successful research and development and small-scale promotion. With their unparalleled advantages over traditional processing methods, they are providing a new technical platform for China's agricultural product processing field and promoting the quality preservation technology of food to a new high

I. main problems of traditional preservation methods

1 The heating time of food is too long: the heating time of general food is 60 ~ 120 minutes, which not only affects the processing efficiency, but also affects the sensory indicators and physical and chemical indicators of the product. It is mainly manifested in quality deterioration, texture collapse, poor taste, flavor convergence, and more nutritional damage. Its color, aroma, taste and shape are very different from those of ready to eat

2. The product variety is not rich enough, which is mainly related to the fact that it is not suitable for processing low heat-resistant raw materials. Therefore, the selection of raw materials is narrow, and it is not suitable for the development of composite products (such as meat and vegetable products)

3. The requirements for product packaging materials are high. The packaging materials must undergo high temperature and high pressure treatment together with food, which is easy to cause bag breakage

4. As the intermittent sterilization method is adopted in the sterilization pot, it is bound to cause the heat accumulation of the finished products to be sterilized before they are put into the pot, which is generally more than 10 ~ 60 minutes. In this way, the heating time of the products to be sterilized before and after the pot is very different, about 60 minutes. Objectively, the quality of the products is inconsistent

II. Characteristics of aseptic packaging

aseptic packaging technology is a new preservation and processing technology that packs and seals the food that has undergone short-term or instantaneous sterilization at high temperature and some indicators have exceeded that of silver in a sterile environment in a pre sterilized container, so that the packaged food can meet the requirements of commercial sterility. It has three asepsis requirements: asepsis of food, asepsis of packaging materials and asepsis of packaging environment (operation)

1. Aseptic characteristics of deep processed aquatic products

since deep processed aquatic products generally contain a lot of water (except dry products), have low physical strength and belong to processing materials with low heat resistance, long-term heating sterilization should be avoided, such as 15 points - (45 ~ 60 points) -20 points/121 ℃, and high-temperature short-term sterilization should be adopted, such as (1 ~ 3 points) - (0.5 ~ 1.5 points) - (1 ~ 3 points)/130 ~ 150 ℃, so as to obtain color, fragrance, taste The high-quality sterile products with good shape are closer to the kitchen cooking products ready to eat, and can carry out continuous processing operations to ensure the quality consistency of each product; In terms of processing efficiency, the processing efficiency is doubled compared with the traditional processing method because the processing time is greatly shortened; From the physical and chemical indexes of the product, it can retain more heat sensitive nutrients beneficial to human body, such as various vitamins, amino acids, etc

2. Aseptic characteristics of packaging materials

since packaging materials do not have to undergo high-temperature and high-pressure sterilization treatment with food, the selection of plastic packaging materials is not as harsh as traditional processing methods, so the cost can be reduced; For such materials, the sterilization requirements can be achieved by hydrogen peroxide immersion

3. Aseptic characteristics of packaging environment (operation)

first, the packaging environment does not produce gas exchange with the outside world, that is, the outside air with bacteria cannot enter the packaging environment to avoid secondary pollution

second, through the combination of chemical sterilizers (such as peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) and ultraviolet sterilization, the aseptic packaging environment can be realized

third, aseptic packaging materials and aseptic food enter the aseptic packaging environment through aseptic channels or aseptic transfer devices; Aseptic packaging products are separated from the aseptic packaging environment through the aseptic export of products

III. application prospect of aseptic packaging in the field of deep processing of aquatic products

aseptic packaging can not only produce all the products that can be produced by traditional preservation technology, but also greatly improve the product quality; With its unique technical advantages, it has also greatly expanded the field of deep processing of aquatic products, bringing unlimited business opportunities. The main application prospects are:

1 It can process large fish, especially valuable fish. The products are beautiful and high-grade, meeting the requirements of gift consumption

2. Using low value fish to produce surimi products is a very meaningful work with high processing added value. However, the traditional cold storage and canning methods have greatly damaged the flavor and taste of surimi products, seriously restricting the development of the industry. The application of aseptic packaging technology can realize the annual production of surimi products under the premise of ensuring the quality and circulation at room temperature

3. Flavor dried products mainly include air dried fish (smoked fish, salted fish, etc.), air dried meat (smoked meat, cured meat, etc.), flavor poultry dried products, seasoned bean products and dehydrated vegetables. Most of these products are sold in bulk or simply packed, which is very easy to absorb moisture, mildew, insects and oxidative deterioration. Aseptic packaging technology can effectively solve this problem and greatly improve the safety of food

4. To develop nutrition combination or meat and vegetable combination products, that is, to mix several raw materials with different heating properties into the same package according to the nutrition combination and aesthetic needs, which can not only meet people's aesthetic requirements, but also meet the human body's needs for various nutrients. At the same time, the products have larger portions, lower costs and more varieties. For example, processed fish products can be compatible with tofu, black fungus, green (red) pepper, mushrooms and other vegetables, resulting in a variety of new products, which can not be achieved by traditional processing methods. However, aseptic packaging can be sterilized by different sterilization methods according to the differences in the heating performance of different raw materials, rather than the common sterilization mode of traditional processing methods (the most difficult raw materials shall prevail), so as to ensure the best state of each raw material, Make the quality of the product reach or approach the "ideal" state of ready to eat

5. In addition to vacuum packaged food, it can also produce pot or dish packaging products containing gas (generally nitrogen and carbon dioxide). These products are more beautiful and more convenient to consume. They are an important development direction of cooking industrialization in the future

in a word, aseptic packaging technology can not only retain all the advantages of traditional preservation methods, such as easy to eat, 3-24 months of shelf life at room temperature, but also greatly improve product quality, increase color and variety, beautify product packaging, save energy, reduce consumption and improve labor efficiency. It can be predicted that aseptic packaging technology will bring a revolution to the food packaging industry, and inject new vitality into the rapid development of water products deep processing industry. Aseptic packaging technology was born in the late 1940s. With the rapid development of packaging plastic industry in the 1960s, various excellent characteristics of aseptic packaging food were fully demonstrated. By the early 1990s, the aseptic packaging products of liquid or semi liquid food were more than 80% in large packaging and more than 50% in small packaging. In terms of the application of aseptic packaging technology for solid or solid food, Japan has carried out industrial production in the aseptic sliced flexible packaging of ham, sausage and other food, with very good results. The products meet the commercial aseptic requirements and can be circulated at room temperature. In the 1970s, aseptic packaging technology began to be introduced into China. After more than 30 years of development, about 300 sets of aseptic packaging equipment for liquid or semi liquid food are in operation, with an annual production capacity of 1.5 million tons; At present, the sterile packaging equipment for solid or solid food is in the stage of successful research and development and small-scale promotion. It is providing a new technical platform for China's agricultural product processing field with its unparalleled advantages of traditional processing methods, and promoting the quality preservation technology of food to a new high

source: global food

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